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Operations / Convoys List
This page is continually added to & revised. It is a complex area to cover.

MF 1
( MA 5 )

The 'F' in MF refers to 'Fast'. This was a Fast moving convoy.
MA 5 refers to a Mediterranean Fleet name.

9th July 1940
A convoy from Malta containing evacuees which comprised mainly British families. Also some Maltese dock workers to increase skill level in Alexandria docks. Arrived Alexandria 11th July.
Battleships - Malaya, Ramillies, Royal Sovereign, Warspite
Aircraft Carrier - Eagle
Cruisers - Caledon, Capetown, Gloucester, Liverpool, Neptune, Orion, Sydney
Destroyers - Dainty, Decoy, Defender, Diamond, Hasty, Havock, Hereward, Hero, Hostile, Hyperion, Ilex, Imperial, Janus, Jervis, Juno, Mohawk, Nubian, Stuart, Vampire, Voyager, Waterhen
Merchants - El Nil, Knight of Malta & Rodi.

MS 1
( MA 5 )

The 'S' in MS refers to 'Slow'. This was a slow moving convoy.

10th July 1940
Sailed from Malta on the 10th arriving Alexandria on the 14th.
Escorts are reported as the same as MF 1 above. One convoy was fast, the other slow so it is thought they covered both.
Merchants - Kirkland, Masirah, Novasli, Tweed, Zeeland.

Operation Hurry

20th July - 2nd August 1940
This was the first delivery consisting of 12 Hurricanes from the carrier HMS Argus. The convoy set sail from the Clyde on the 20th July. These were flew off south of Sardinia.
All 12 aircraft arrived safely on Malta but 1 crash landed. This was later repaired & put into action.
The aircraft were escorted to Malta by 2 Skuas which should have returned to Argus but were retained on Malta.
It is interesting to note these RAF ground crew were taken to Malta in the submarines Pandora & Proteus which was a forerunner to submarine supplies being sent to Malta.
Battleships - Resolution, Valliant (joined Gibraltar)
Cruisers - Arethusa (joined Gibraltar)
Destroyers - Encounter, Gallant, Greyhound, Hotspur (Escapade & Velox joined Gibraltar)
A diversionary strike was made by battlecruiser Hood, carrier Ark Royal, destroyers Faulknor, Forester, Foresight & Foxhound on Cagliari. Also the cruiser Enterprise was detached from this force to hunt a French vessel (presumeably a warship) which was thought to be in the area.
MF 2
Also referred to as
Hats MB & Hats.
MB was the Fleet reinforcement.
Hats was the Gibraltar convoy.
29th August 1940
Essentially 2 convoys. One from Alexandria, the other from Gibraltar. The latter one was mainly to reinforce the Mediterranean Fleet.
Sailed from Alexandria for Malta. Arrived 2nd September. The destroyers were the only escorts to go all the way to Malta.
From Alexandria -
Battleships - Malaya, Warspite
Aircraft Carrier - Eagle
Cruisers - Gloucester, Kent, Liverpool, Orion, Sydney
Destroyers - Dainty, Decoy, Defender, Diamond, Garland, Hasty, Hereward, Hyperion, Ilex, Imperial, Jervis, Juno, Stuart, Vampire, Vendetta, Voyager
Royal Fleet Auxilliary - Plumleaf (tanker)
Merchants - Cornwall (reefer or refrigerated), Volo (freighter)
Cornwall was bombed on the 31st & set afire.
40,000 tons of supplies were off loaded.
From Gibraltar -
Battlecruiser - Renown
Battleship - Valiant
Aircraft Carrier - Illustrious
Cruisers - Calcutta, Coventry (for Alexandria), Sheffield
Destroyers - Encounter, Faulknor, Firedrake, Forester, Foresight, Fortune, Fury, Gallant, Greyhound, Griffin, Hero, Hotspur, Janus, Mohawk, Nubian, Velox, Wishart
MB 6
8th October 1940

Convoy set out from Alexandria for Malta & returned with empty ships. Taking part were 4 battleships, 2 aircraft carriers, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers.
Battleships - Warspite, Valiant, Malaya, Ramilles
Aircraft Carriers - Illustrious, Eagle
Cruisers - York (heavy), Gloucester, Ajax, Liverpool, Orion, HMAS Sydney (light)
Destroyers - Hyperion, Havock, Hereward, Hero, Hasty, Ilex, Imperial, Janus, Jervis, Juno, Nubian, Dainty, Defender, Decoy, HMAS Vampire, HMAS Vendetta

Arrived Malta 11th October with only I ship damaged by a mine (Imperial) which was out of action for 6 months.

Operation Coat
November 1940
Not really a resupply convoy for Malta but worth including. Ark Royal flew off 3 Fulmars to Malta which were refueled & flew on eastward to meet Illustrious.
Source - A Naval History of Malta 1798-1979, Peter Elliott. p120
November 1940
Convoy of 4 fast merchantmen sailed from Alexandria for Malta.
Operation Judgement
Operation Judgement Convoy
11th November 1940
The raid on the harbour of Taranto.
The battleship Conte di Cavour was sunk in harbour, the battleship Littorio was hit by 3 torpedoes and the battleship Caio Diulio was hit by 1 torpedo. The heavy cruiser Trento received heavy damage, along with several destroyers badly damaged. Shore installations were also damaged.
A convoy was sent to Malta to coincide with this attack which made it safely. This was called Operation Judgement Convoy.
Operation Collar
12th November 1940
A 3 ship convoy from Gibraltar comprising New Zealand Star, Clan Forbes & Clan Fraser escorted by HMS Manchester & HMS Southampton (Force 'F') carrying 1370 RAF Technicians.
Later reinforced by the destroyer Hotspur & corvettes Peony, Salvia, Gloxinia & Hyacinth. The corvettes however were unable to keep up pace with the convoy.
This was a convoy destined for Malta & Alexandria - Clan Fraser & Clan Forbes went to Malta whilst New Zealand Star went on to Alexandria escorted by cruisers HMS Manchester and HMS Southampton plus destroyers HMS Defender and HMS Hereward.
The convoy was shadowed to the north by Force 'H' commanded by Admiral James Somerville. This comprised battlecruiser HMS Renown, aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, cruisers HMS Sheffield & HMS Despatch and 9 destroyers.
This was to intercept any Italian intervention which came in the form of 2 battleships, 6 cruisers, 14 destroyers which were under the command of Admiral Inigo Campioni. The engagement came to be known as the Battle of Spartivento.

Operation White

11th - 17th November 1940
Sailed from the Clyde on the 11th November. 12 Hurricanes were delivered from HMS Argus but only 4 arrived on the Island with 8 running out of fuel before landfall.
Battlecruiser - Renown (joined west of Gibraltar)
Carrier - Ark Royal (joined west of Gibraltar)
Cruiser -Sheffield (joined west of Gibraltar)
Destroyers - Duncan, Fury, Wishart (Faulknor, Firedrake, Forester, Fortune, Foxhound joined west of Gibraltar).
Ships joining from Gibraltar were part of Force H.
Due to intelligence reports of a strong Italian force near the area of usual take off it was decided to fly the aircraft off further west which meant some of the aircraft ran out of fuel before reaching Malta. Also Sunderland & Glenn Martin aircraft did not meet the convoy. One of the Skua guide aircraft became lost & was shot down over Sicily.
Operation Excess
MC 4
MW 5½
ME 5½
ME 6
January 6th 1941
A complex series of 4 convoys.
Click link left for more detailed information.
Ark Royal flew off 5 Swordfish for Malta on the 9th January which were previously delivered to Gibraltar from the Clyde.
MW 6
March 20th

Left Alexandria for Malta. HMS Carlisle was part of the convoy en route to Malta dockyard for a propeller shaft replacement. She was fitted out as an anti aircraft cruiser.
Known ships taking part were - cruisers Bonaventure, Calcutta, Coventry, Glasgow, York..
Battleships - Barham, Valiant, Warspite.
Carrier Formidable.
Destroyers - 9.

MC 9
MW 7
Operation Winch
April 3rd 1941
12 Hurricanes Mk II loaded on Argus at the Clyde mid March 1941 along with 3 Skuas. All Hurricanes arrived Malta but one crash landed.Transferred to Ark Royal by 2nd April (Gibraltar ?). Also flown off were 9 Fulmars of 800X Naval Squadron.
The Skuas returned for Ark Royal but due to adverse weather conditions never made the carrier & ditched in the sea.

Convoy sailed from the Clyde 21st March -
Carrier - Argus
Cruiser - Sheffield
Destroyers - Garland, Napier, Nizam, Ottawa
Screened by Force H to Gibraltar comprising -
Carrier - Ark Royal
Battlecruiser - Renown
Destroyers - Foresight, Forester & Fortune
Arriving Gibraltar 29th March. Aircraft were transferred to Ark Royal here. Joined by -
Battlecruiser - Renown
Cruiser - Sheffield
Destroyers - Faulknor, Fearless, Foresight, Fortune, Fury

Operation Dunlop

April 17 - 27th 1941
Argus carried 24 Hurricane Mk 1 & II aircraft from the Clyde to Gibraltar. In company from the Clyde was the cruiser London. Arrived Gibraltar on the 24th where the ships were escorted by the cruiser Sheffield & destroyers Faulknor, Forester & Wrestler.
23 Hurricanes were transferred to Ark Royal . One was unserviceable. The convoy sailed for Malta on the 25th. The 23 Hurricanes were flown off for Malta on the 27th guided by 3 Skuas.
Aircraft Carrier - Ark Royal
Battlecruiser - Renown
Cruiser - Sheffield
Destroyers - Faulknor, Fearless, Foresight, Fortune, Fury
Operation Salient
During Operation Dunlop
An operation in a seperate convoy to pass warships through to Malta.
Operation Tiger
MW 7A & MW 7B (Operation MD4)
May 5th
A little complicated but basically an operation to pass convoys MW7A & MW7B from Alexandria to Malta plus a military convoy from Gibraltar to Malta which was to travel on to Alexandria with
HM Cruisers Calcutta, Coventry, Dido, Naiad,.
Phoebe and Tug St.Issey.
Taking part from Alexandria - HM Cruiser Coventry, HM Corvette Gloxinia, HM Whaler Swona (SANF) and HM Tug St.Issey + destroyers as escort for Convoy MW7A to Malta.
Operation Splice
May 21st 1941
Furious carried 64 Hurricanes of Mk II loaded Liverpool & then on to the Clyde, joining the cruiser London (London had 575 service personnel onboard) for the trip to Gibraltar with escorts Brilliant, Legion, Mashona, Tartar (until the 15th). Relieved by Fearless, Harvester, Havelock, Wrestler to Gibraltar, arriving on the 18th. Here she transferred 20 Hurricanes & 5 Fulmars in a stern to stern transfer with a wooden ramp between the ships.
Sailed for Malta on the 19th.
Carriers - Furious, Ark Royal

Battlecruiser - Renown
Cruiser - Sheffield
Destroyers - Brilliant, Faulknor, Forester, Foxhound, Fury, Hesperus
A total of 16 Hurricanes remained at Gibraltar during this operation.
Foresight made her own way back to Gibraltar.
Operation Rocket
22nd May - June 6th 1941
Argus loaded 29 crated Hurricanes on the Clyde & sailed along with the cruiser Exeter to join convoy WS 8B on the 22nd May. Arrived Gibraltar on the 31st after being escorted by the destroyer Foresight. Meanwhile Furious made a fast turnround.& made Gibraltar on the 1st June with 48 Mk II Hurricanes. Some of these were loaded onto Ark Royal. Argus meanwhile made another stern to stern transfer of all her Hurricanes to Furious. A total of 44 Hurricanes were loaded onto the carriers with the remainder being left at Gibraltar for assembly.
Convoy sailed from Gibraltar 4th June.
Carriers - Ark Royal, Furious
Battlecruiser - Renown
Cruiser - Sheffield
Destroyers - Faulknor, Fearless, Foresight, Forester, Foxhound, Fury
The convoy returned to Gibraltar (arriving 7th June). Furious & Argus (joining at sea) sailed for the Clyde for more aircraft.

Operation Tracer

May 31st - June 14th 1941
A little more complicated. During operations to sink the Bismark the carrier Victorious was due to sail for West Africa. She unloaded 48 Mk I Hurricanes & sailed to the operation to sink Bismark. On return she reloaded the 48 Hurricane Mk I's on the 29th May & sailed on the 31st to join convoy WS 8X escorted by cruisers Neptune & Orion with the destroyer Wessex. Victorious & Neptune left the convoy (5th) & made for Gibraltar, arriving on the 9th after being met by Renown, Ark Royal & 6 destroyers.
Convoy sailed from Gibraltar on the 13th June.
Carriers - Ark Royal, Victorious
Battlecruiser - Renown
Destroyers - Faulknor, Fearless, Foresight, Forester, Foxhound, Hesperus, Wishart.
A total of 46 Hurricanes were flown off but only 42 made Malta with 2 crashing, 1 ditching in the sea & 1 losing its way eventually to turn up in North Africa.
Returned Gibraltar on the 15th where Victorious sailed on to the Clyde for more aircraft.
Operation Railway I
June 1941
22 Hurricanes flown off Ark Royal.
Operation Railway II
June 1941
35 Hurricanes flown off Ark Royal & Furious.
Operation Style
June 15th 1941
Victorious & Furious flew off 44 Hurricanes.
Operation Railway
June 22nd 1941
An operation in 2 phases. Phase 1 a convoy from the UK to Gibraltar comprising Furious (carrier), destroyers Legion & Lance. Arrived Gibraltar on the 25th. The aircraft on Furious were transferred to Ark Royal for the trip to Malta. Sailed for Malta on the 26th. Convoy comprised - Ark Royal (carrier), Renown (battleship), Faulknor, Forester, Fury, Legion (destroyers). This was called Group B. Group A was the launch of aircraft from Furious. An aircraft crashed on take off from Furious which delayed the operation. The flying off of aircraft was called phase 2.

Operation Substance

25th July 1941
A convoy from Gibraltar consisting of 6 merchantmen & Naval escort. 65,000 tons of supplies were off loaded.
Operation Status I
September 8th 1941
A convoy screen to deliver hurricanes for Ark Royal, Furious ?(carrier), Hermione (cruiser) & Lance, Forester, Gurkha & Lively (destroyers) - Force A.
26 Hurricanes flown off Ark Royal.
Operation Status II
September 10th
Convoy comprising Ark Royal (carrier), Nelson (battleship), Lance, Lively, Gurkha, Zulu (destroyers)
46 Hurricanes flown off Ark Royal & Furious.
Operation Halberd
(GM 02)
(WS 11X)
September 24th
Gibraltar convoy consisting 9 merchantmen (Breconshire, Imperial Star, City of Calcutta, Ajax (?), Dunedin Star, Clan Ferguson, Rowallan Castle, Clan Macdonald, City of Lincoln) , 1 carrier (Ark Royal), 3 battleships ( Prince of Wales, Rodney, Nelson), 5 cruisers (Hermione, Kenya, Edinburgh, Sheffield, Euryalus) & 18 ( in 'A Naval History of Malta' this is given as 19 ) destroyers including (Lance, Duncan, Gurkha, Legion, Lively, Oribi, Fury, Farndale, Heythrop, Cossack, Zulu, Foresight, Forester, Laforey, Lightning, Isaac Sweers (Dutch), ORP Garland & Piorun (Polish). Corvette Fleur de Lys. Fleet tanker Brown Ranger. Also 9 submarines (including Utmost, Trusty, Sokol) on watch. 85,000 tons of supplies off loaded & 2,600 troops. Casualties included 1 merchantman (Imperial Star) torpedoed from an Italian aircraft & 1 battleship sunk.
The last part of the push to Malta consisted of 3 cruisers & 9 destroyers which arrived ahead of the main convoy on September 27th 1941.
Operation MG 2
September 27th
Convoy to return from Malta to Gibraltar.
Operation Callboy
WS12 from the Clyde to Gibraltar
18th October
11 Albacores & 2 Swordfish flown off Ark Royal.
Operation Perpetual
November 10-12th
From Gibraltar to Malta. Carriers Ark Royal & Argus deliver Hurricanes. On the return journey Ark Royal was torpedoed & damaged by U-81.
Operation Chieftain
November 18th
A bombardment of the north African coast by the main fleet based in Alexandria. This was a diversionary operation for Operation Landmark.
Operation Landmark
November 18th
A convoy sailed south from Malta to simulate an assault force heading towards the Libyan coast. Ships included were the fleet tanker Breconshire & 4 merchantmen escorted by Force K. The convoy was not attacked & returned to Malta at dawn on the 22nd November.

Operation Herkules

December 1941
This was an Axis code name for an invasion of Malta with General Kurt Student in command of 2 airborne divisions (one of which being the Italian 2nd Parachute Division).
The role of these divisions was to sieze the higher ground behind Valletta. From here they would overrun an airfield & secure it for axis troop carrying aircraft to land with heavier weapons.
Their was to be a feint or diversionary attack at Marsa Scirocco bay to cover the main assault by the Italian Navy which would land 2-3 assault divisions south of Valletta.
A date near mid July 1941 was set for the invasion partly due to the need to bring men from other frontline positions & partly as Hitler considered the Italian Navy to be no match for the Royal Navy.
Glider strips (3) were being prepared 25 miles south of Mount Etna.
Kesselring urged Hitler to invade Malta but this was turned down. Rommel & Goering supported scrapping the operation as they considered high casualties would be incurred as was the case in the Crete invasion.
This operation was finally shelved following the allies re-capturing Tobruk on November 11th 1941.
Operation ME 9
January 5th 1942
Left Malta with Force 'K' for Alexandria escorting Glengyle.
Operation MW 8
January 19th
Arrived from Alexandria with 3 merchantmen (one other was lost). Escorted by the anti-aircraft cruiser Carlisle & 8 destroyers from Force K.
Unknown Operation Name
Convoy with destroyers HMS Antelope, Vidette, Westcott, Wishart & Wrestler to form part of escort for carrier Victorious en route to Malta with aircraft.
Unknown Operation Name
January 27th
Convoy arrived from Alexandria comprising Breconshire & 2 merchantmen escorted by Force 'K'.
Operation MW 9
An ill fated convoy from Alexandria where all of the 3 merchantmen in the convoy were sunk. The escorts escorted Breconshire & 3 empty merchantmen from Malta presumeably back to Alexandria.
Operation MG 5
February 13th
Convoy from Malta to Alexandria with Breconshire & 6 destroyers. Returned to Malta on the 15th with destroyers Lance & Legion.

Operation MF 5

February 1942
Convoy from Alexandria consisting of 3 merchantmen Rowallen Castle, Clan Chattan, Clan Campbell, 3 cruisers & 16 destroyers. This convoy had to turn back on the 14th February without making Malta.
The Rowallen Castle & Clan Chattan were sunk & the Clan Campbell turned back to Egypt.

Operation Spotter

February 28th 1942

First time Spitfires were flown off HMS Eagle to Malta. This operation was abandoned due to a fault with untested & overloaded fuel tanks. The whole fleet was forced to return to Gibralter.

This operation was repeated with the same name 7th March. A total of 15 spitfires arrived Malta.

Operation MW 10
MG 1

Sometimes referred to as 'Operation Salvation'
An Italian view of the convoy.

"2nd Battle of Sirte2"

March 20 - 25th 1942
Convoy departing from Alexandria consisting of 4 merchantmen, 5 cruisers (HMS Dido, Euryalus ? & Cleopatra +)& 17 destroyers. Destroyer Legion was bombed & sunk in Grand Harbour. Merchantmen Pampas & Talabot (Norwegian ship loaded with ammunition) were sunk in
Grand Harbour after a bombing raid; the Clan Campbell was sunk some 20 miles to the southeast of Malta; the Breconshire (oil tanker) was hit in the engine room by a 250 lb (?) bomb dropped by a fighter on a fast run in. The ship didn't catch fire. The seas were too rough to attach a line to the crippled ship so she dropped anchor & 3 destroyers (HMS Eridge +?)were detailed to look after her. HMS Eridge took 112 seamen off the crippled merchantman. Later she was towed the last few miles to Marsaxlokk Bay by Penelope where she was later bombed & sunk in a raid. From this convoy 5,000 tons of supplies were off loaded including some oil from Breconshire.
Operation Picket I
March 21st 1942
HMS Eagle flew off 9 spitfires for Malta.
Operation Picket II
April 20th 1942
HMS Eagle flew off 7 spitfires for Malta.

Operation Calendar

April 20th 1942

US Navy carrier Wasp flies off 47 Spitfires of 601 & 603 Squadrons, only 1 failed to arrive, this
being a pilot who defected. A large enemy attack followed leaving only 7 serviceable aircraft 48 hours later.
Carrier - Wasp
Battlecruiser - Renown
Cruisers - Cairo, Charybdis
Destroyer escorts -
HMS Antelope, Echo, Inglefield, Ithuriel, Partridge, Vidette, Westcott, Wishart & Wrestler. US Destroyers Lang & Madison.
The force set out from Greenock (Scotland) for Gibraltar.

Operation Bowery

May 9th 1942

US Navy carrier Wasp & Royal Navy carrier HMS Eagle deliver 64 Spitfires, 4 of which failed to
make the Island.
The mistakes of Operation Calendar were ironed out in this Operation. Prior to leaving Gibraltar experienced pilots were flown in by Hudson (piloted by Flying Officer Matthews) from Malta to train the new pilots in what operations were like over Malta & to instruct them in new procedures where each aircraft on landing would be met by groundcrew carrying a numbered sign which they would follow to a safety pen where they would be re-fuelled & re-armed as fast as possible & get back in the air to meet the Axis aircraft sent over to destroy the new aircraft on the ground.
HMS Eagle returned to Gibraltar & loaded another shipment of 16 Spitfires & returned to Malta as Operation LB.
Carriers - HMS Eagle, USS Wasp
Battlecruiser - Renown
Cruisers - Charybdis
Destroyers - Antelope, Echo, Georgetown, Intrepid, Ithuriel, Partridge, Salisbury, Vidette, Westcott, Wishart, Wrangler. US destroyers Lang & Sterret.

Operation LB

May 18th 1942

HMS Eagle flies off 16 Spitfires all of which arrive safely. 76 Spitfires arriving in these 2 shipments
give heavy reinforcements to the Island & mark a turning point to control the skies above Malta.
Carriers - Eagle, Argus
Cruiser - Charybdis
Destroyers - Antelope, Partridge, Ithuriel, Vidette, Westcott, Wishart.

Operation Style
June 2nd - 1942
Carrier - Eagle (Furious ?)
Cruiser - Charybdis
Destroyers - Antelope, Ithuriel, Partridge, Westcott, Wishart
Operation Salient
June 8th - 1942

Carrier - Eagle
Cruisers - Cairo
Destroyers - Antelope, Ithuriel, Partridge, Vidette, Westcott
A total of 32 spitfires flew off Eagle but two were lost in the sea.

Operation Vigorous
MW 11

June 11 - 16th 1942

A convoy from Haifa, Palestine and Port Said, Egypt consisting of 11 merchantmen, 1 dummy battleship, 8 cruisers, 26 destroyers, 4 corvettes, 2 minesweepers & 2 rescue ships had to turn back to Egypt due to the presence of the Italian Fleet. This fleet included the new battleships Littorio & Vittorio veneto with 2 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers & 12 destroyers. With 2 battleships to contend with the convoy would have been up against it & did the right thing in turning back on the 15th June.
The weight of the air attack also took a toll on the convoy with 4 merchantmen sunk & 2 damaged,. The escort suffered submarine attacks also with 3 cruisers damaged, 3 destroyers sunk, 2 corvettes damaged & 1 torpedo boat sunk.
On returning to Taranto the submarine HMS Umbra sunk a heavy cruiser after torpedo carrying aircraft from Malta attacked the ship. The battleship Littorio was also hit by 1 bomb & 1 torpedo but not sunk.

Battleships - Centurion (A really old battleship made up to simulate a battleship presense in the convoy. She was basically only armed with anti aircraft guns)
Cruisers - Newcastle, Birmingham (damaged & scuttled on the 16th), Hermione (sunk on the 16th by torpedoes from U-205)
Destroyers - Hasty (sunk 15th June), Airedale, Aldenham, Hurworth,

HMAS Nestor (scuttled on the 16th)

Operation Harpoon
WS 19

June 11 - 16th 1942

A convoy from Gibraltar consisting of 6 merchantmen (Kentucky - oil tanker - 5,500 tons, Burdwan - British, Tannibar - Dutch, Troilus, Orari, Chant - USA), 1 battleship, cruisers (unknown number but including HMS Manchester), 26 destroyers, 4 corvettes, 4 minesweepers & 2 rescue ships were under heavy attack for 4 days. 2 merchantmen only reached Grand Harbour (Troilus - 7500 tons & Orari - 10,500 tons). Losses included 1 cruiser (HMS Manchester), 5 destroyers & four merchantmen. 25,000 tons of supplies were off loaded. This represented a further 2-3 months supply for the Island.
HMS Welshman also arrived safely at Malta & unloaded cargo.
On this western convoy 4 merchantmen were sunk including the tanker Kentucky, 1 other merchantman damaged, 2 cruisers damaged, 1 destroyer sunk & 1 damaged.
Troilus & Orari unloaded some 20,000 tons of cargo (flour & ammunition) at Malta.
Carriers - Eagle, Argus
Battleship - Malaya
Cruisers - Kenya, Liverpool, Charybdis, Manchester
Destroyers - Escapade, Icarus, Onslow, Westcott
, Bedouin (sunk on the 15th by Italian torpedo aircraft with the loss of 28 men), Partridge, Ithuriel, Matchless, Marne, Kujawiak (sunk by mines in the first hour of the 16th), Blakney, Badsworth
Minesweepers - Hebe , Speedy, Rye, Hythe
, Ml134, ML135, ML459 and ML462

Merchant Ships
Troilus, Burdwan
(sunk by the cruiser Raimondo Montecuccol on the 15th) and Orari sailing from the UK
Tanimbar (sunk on the 14th) sailing from Holland
Chant (sunk on the 15th) and the 10,000-ton tanker Kentucky (sunk with torpedoes from the Alfredo Oriani after being shelled by the Raimondo Montecuccol) sailing from the USA.

Operation Pinpoint
July 15th - 1942

Carrier - Eagle
Cruisers - Charybdis, Cairo
Destroyers - Antelope, Ithuriel, Vansittart, Westcott, Wrestler
A total of 32 spitfires were flown off the carrier, 31 arrived safely.

Operation Insect
July 20th - 1942
Carrier - Eagle
Cruisers - Charybdis, Cairo
Destroyers - Antelope, Ithuriel, Vansittart, Westcott, Wrestler
A total of 32 spitfires were flown off the carrier, 25 arrived safely.

Operation Pedestal

August 10 - 15th 1942

Probably the most famous & well known operation. Also called the 'Santa Maria convoy' this sailed from Gibraltar & consisted of 14 merchantmen (Ohio (tanker), Port Chalmers, Melbourne Star, Rochester Castle, Brisbane Star), 4 aircraft carriers (HMS Eagle, HMS Indomitable), 2 battleships(HMS Rodney), 7 cruisers(anti aircraft cruiser HMS Cairo, HMS Manchester, HMS Nigeria, HMS Kenya), 24 destroyers (HMS Foresight). This convoy is under heavy attack for 5 days by U-boats, aircraft & elements of the Italian Fleet.
Only 5 merchantmen reached the Island with 53,000 tons of supplies out of 85,000 tons which started the journey. Losses included 9 merchantmen, 1 carrier (HMS Eagle), 2 cruisers. Damaged ships included 1 carrier (HMS Indomitable), 1 battleship (HMS Rodney) all 7 cruisers (HMS Nigeria, HMS Kenya) & 3 merchantmen.

Operation Bellows
August 11th 1942
A total of 38 spitfires were flown off HMS Furious, 37 arrived safely.
Operation Baritone
August 17th 1942
A total of 32 spitfires were flown off HMS Furious, 29 arrived safely.
Operation Train
October 28th - 1942

Carrier - Furious
Cruisers - Aurora, Charybdis
Destroyers - Achates, Bramham, Cowdray, Vanoc, Verity, Westcott, Wishart.
Polish destroyer Orp Blyskawka
A total of 29 spitfires landed Malta.

Operation Torch
Initially called Operation Gymnast
November 8th 1942

Invasion of French North Africa.

HMS Pricess Beatrix - Landing ship Infantry. 1st Bn.,6th US Armoureded Inf. Col. Kain, Maj. Miller (KIA Tunisia)

Operation Stoneage
sometimes erroneously called 'Stonehenge'.

November 15 - 20th 1942
A convoy from Alexandria consisting of 4 merchantmen, 5 cruisers (Euryalus) & 16 (17 in some lierature?) destroyers (Hunt Class) deliver 35,000 tons of supplies. 1 cruiser sustained damage. This convoy marked the end of the siege.
HMS Penelope was damaged in this convoy but all ships made Malta despite passing through a November gale. three Spitfires based on Malta were lost due to this severe weather.
Operation Portcullis
December 1942
Convoy consisting 4 merchantmen, 1 cruiser, 18 destroyers & 1 minelayer delivered 55,000 tons of supplies without loss. 4 candles & 8 nightlights were issued to every family on the Island.
9–10 July 1943
Invasion of Sicily.
Operation Avalanche
9th September
Landings at Salerno, Italy.

Operation Shingle

22nd January 1944
Landings at Anzio.


This is a great reference site with mainly Atlantic convoys but many Malta convoys are listed which are being worked on -
MF 1/MS1 • MF 2 • MF 3 • MF 4 • MW 3/ME 3 • MW 4/ME 4 • MW 5A & B • ME 5A • MG 1 • MW 5 1/2/ME 5 1/2 • MW 6 • ME 7 • MW 7A & B • GM 1 • GM 2/MG 2 • GM 3 • ME 8 • MW 8 • ME 9 • MW 9 • ME 10 • MW 10 • GM 4 • MW 11 • WS 21s • MW 12 • MW 13 • MW 14 • MW 15 • MW 16 • MW 17 • MW 18 • MW 19 • ME 11 • ME 12 • ME 14 • ME 15 • ME 16 • ME 17 • History of HMS Lance
Malta Convoys David A.Thomas
Malta - The Thorn in Rommel's Side
Laddie Lucas.
Siege Malta 1940 -1943.
Ernle Bradford.
The Cross & Ensign - A Naval History of Malta 1798-1979
Peter Elliott
Italian Naval Ministry. Contains many photos of Italian ships used in WWII. Google users right click this page & select 'Translate page into English'.

See also the Naval Operations page.

References Naval